The power of a nuclear bomb is immense, but it is not enough to completely obliterate an entire country. Even the most powerful Tsar bomb, with its impact radius, would not be able to do so. The only countries that could be completely destroyed by a nuclear weapon are those with very small land areas, such as Vatican City and Monaco, which measure 44 ha and 202 ha respectively. However, even a limited nuclear exchange would have devastating consequences.
Studies suggest that it would lead to an unprecedented increase in ultraviolet exposure due to the large quantities of ozone-consuming chemicals released into the atmosphere. This is why the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) was signed by 191 states, including the United States and Russia, who were once Cold War enemies. Both countries have reduced their nuclear arsenals significantly since the 1980s and 1960s respectively; the US has gone from around 30,000 to just under 4,000 today. The presence of nuclear weapons in some NATO countries increases the risk of a nuclear confrontation.
The Wellerstein simulator can predict the number of casualties and injuries from a nuclear bomb in a given location, based on models of Cold War nuclear explosions. Direct Radiation is the most immediate effect of a nuclear explosion; it consists mainly of gamma rays and neutrons. Iran began its nuclear program in the 1950s and has always maintained that it is for peaceful purposes. The question remains: should we eliminate nuclear weapons? What risks would such an action entail? These are the real issues at stake in current debates about the future of nuclear weapons.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) seeks to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and promote disarmament.
Nuclear Winteris another consequence of a nuclear war; it is caused by soot particles injected into the atmosphere, resulting in a substantial reduction in global temperature. According to a simulator created by the Outrider Foundation, a 300-kiloton nuclear bomb detonated in the air would create a fireball of just over one square kilometer in a fraction of a second. The debate about the effects of nuclear war continues, and it is unlikely that any conclusions will be reached without an actual nuclear war taking place.
In an interview with Business Insider, Tara Drozdenko from the Global Security Program at the Union of Concerned Scientists said that a nuclear confrontation is unlikely unless another nuclear power intervenes directly in Ukraine's conflict. A limited form of nuclear warfare would be similar to conventional conflict on the battlefield but using low-performance tactical nuclear weapons.