Death is almost certain and radiation poisoning is almost certain if one is exposed outdoors without the masking effects of terrain or building within a radius of 0 to 3 km from a 1 megaton aerial blast. The 50% chance of death from the explosion extends to ~8 km from the same atmospheric explosion of 1 megaton. Heat is a major issue for those closest to the explosion. Minor first-degree burns can occur up to 11 km (6.8 miles) away, and third-degree burns, which destroy and blister skin tissue, can affect anyone up to 8 km (5 miles) away.
Third-degree burns that cover more than 24 percent of the body would likely be fatal if people don't get medical care right away. The recent threats of terrorism have caused many people to worry about the possibility and effects of a nuclear explosion. It is important to understand the different types and sizes of nuclear weapons, as well as the potential consequences of an attack. Modern nuclear bombs start by triggering a fission reaction.
Fission is the division of the nuclei of heavy atoms into lighter atoms, a process that releases neutrons. These neutrons, in turn, can precipitate into the nuclei of nearby atoms, splitting them and triggering a chain reaction out of control. The government website Ready, gov reports that anyone with prior warning, whether from official communications or seeing a flash of a nearby detonation, should move to a basement or the center of a large building and stay there for at least 24 hours to avoid the worst fallout. Radiation is the secondary, and far more insidious, consequence of a nuclear explosion.
Fission bombs dropped on Japan created local repercussions, according to Nuclear Choices for the Twenty-First Century, but modern thermonuclear weapons drop radioactive material high in the stratosphere (the middle layer of the Earth's atmosphere), allowing global precipitation. The level of precipitation depends on whether the bomb detonates above the ground in a gust of air or on the ground. Russia and the United States have 90% of the world's nuclear weapons, according to Federation of American Scientists. Russia has 1,588 weapons deployed on intercontinental missiles and heavy bomber bases, while the U.
S. UU. It has 1,644 weapons prepared in the same way. The two countries also have nearly 5,000 other active bombs between them that are in operation and that are simply waiting for launches.
Perhaps a more likely scenario involves a limited-scale nuclear conflict using so-called tactical atomic weapons. According to the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, 30-40% of Russia's and US arsenals are made up of these smaller bombs, which have a range of less than 310 miles (500 kilometers) by land and less than 372 miles (600 km) by sea or air. To maximize your chances of surviving a nuclear attack, Ready recommends having an emergency supply kit handy in a safe location. The same kit can also be used during other disasters such as hurricanes or prolonged power outages.
A suitcase bomb would produce a very destructive nuclear explosion, but not as large as that of a nuclear weapon developed for strategic military purposes.