But the overwhelming majority of the human population would suffer extremely unpleasant deaths from burns, radiation and hunger, and human civilization would likely collapse completely. Survivors would earn a living on a devastated and barren planet. It is estimated that a large-scale nuclear war would directly kill 770 million people and produce 180 Tg of soot from the burning of cities and forests. In the United States, approximately half of the population would be within 5 km of a zero nuclear explosion, and one-fifth of the country's population would die instantly.
However, decades of living with nuclear weapons have produced a wide body of knowledge about what a nuclear war could do to the planet and to humanity. If a small nuclear war broke out, tens of millions of people would die after the initial explosions. A blanket of soot would envelop the Sun's rays and cause a nuclear winter, destroying crops across the planet and plunging billions of people into famine. In the Northern Hemisphere, there would be such severe ozone depletion due to nuclear smoke that organisms would suffer greater exposure to harmful ultraviolet light.
While things would not be so bad in the southern hemisphere, even well-positioned countries like Australia would face the ripple effects of a small nuclear war in the northern hemisphere by the sheer virtue of their interconnection with the world community. Those who survive the bombing and its effects will have to walk through the burning rubble and pass through charred and lifeless bodies to safety. Some of them will ultimately survive, but others will succumb to injuries sustained or radiation. The wind, on the other hand, will carry irradiated debris and objects known as rain, because they fall from the sky far outside the area of the explosion and make many others sick.
The consequences of a nuclear war would extend far beyond the explosion itself, killing millions of people around the world. And with advances in nuclear technology since then, it is possible that the devastation of the next nuclear attack will be much, much worse. Before the war in Ukraine, it seemed highly unlikely that the superpowers would reengage and wield nuclear weapons, so many scientists studied the effects of more limited nuclear conflicts. In 1982, nuclear disarmament activist Jonathan Schell published The Fate of the Earth, which many consider to be the first carefully argued presentation that concludes that extinction is a significant possibility of nuclear war.
So what is the risk of nuclear war really? After talking to more than a dozen experts familiar with the horrors of nuclear conflicts, the answer is that the possibilities are small, very small. In contrast to previous research on global nuclear conflicts, studies have shown that even small-scale regional nuclear conflicts could disrupt the global climate for a decade or more. Russian President Vladimir Putin has hinted that he would consider using nuclear weapons if faced with a NATO military response in Ukraine, or if there was a direct threat to his person or regime. Scientists have argued that even a small-scale nuclear war between two countries could have devastating global consequences and such local conflicts are more likely than large-scale nuclear war.
As a result of the extensive nuclear fallout of the nuclear detonation of Castle Bravo in 1954, author Nevil Shute wrote the popular novel On the Beach, released in 1957.While the physical effects of a nuclear winter would begin to dissipate after a decade as the sky began to clear, the catastrophic consequences of even a localized nuclear conflict would have far-reaching consequences. Although this report was made when nuclear stocks were at much higher levels than they are today, it was also made before the risk of a nuclear winter was first theorized in the early 1980s. Here's how to act and where to take refuge if you get an alert about an ICBM or other nuclear threat. The term nuclear winter was coined in the 1980s when scientists began to realize that the horrors of nuclear war would not be limited to explosive explosions and radiation.
In a nuclear war scenario of 4,400 warheads and 150 Tg of soot, within five years of a nuclear war, the average reduction in dietary calories would be 97.2% in China, 97.5% in France, 99.7% in Russia, 99.5% in the United Kingdom and 98.9% in the United States. That is, until one of them Googled the nuclear safety bomb how to shelter from the beach and found a Business Insider article titled If a nuclear bomb explodes, this is the most important thing you can do to survive. Depending on the plan chosen by the president, the command will go to US crews operating submarines that carry nuclear missiles, combat aircraft that can launch nuclear bombs, or troops that supervise intercontinental ballistic missiles on the ground. .